Thermodynamics and Evolution
On May 1, 2010, the Catholic Truth published my review of a book by Richard Dawkins titled The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. In my review, I ridicule Dawkins for ridiculing creationists for saying biological evolution violates the second law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics has nothing to do with biological and stellar evolution. Those people who see a connection between the complexity of living organism and the second law don’t understand thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the study of gases, liquids, and solids. The zeroth law is that temperature, which is the sensation of hot and cold, is measured with a thermometer. The first law is a definition of heat and internal energy. The third law is that 273 Celsius degrees below zero (0 K) is as cold as it gets.
Entropy is defined in terms of heat and temperature, and the second law states that the entropy of an isolated system either remains constant or increases. This means that heat flows from high temperatures to low temperatures, a gas fills up the entire container it is in, and a sugar cube will dissolve in a cup of coffee. The evolution of stars does not violate the second law. Rather, the second law does not apply to the evolution of stars.
Dawkins’s explanation of why evolution does not violate the second law was unintelligible because it referred to the proviso about a system being isolated and energy from the Sun. The thought that evolution violates a law of physics might have filled Dawkins with so much anxiety that he could not think intelligently and rationally. The other possibility is that he was fighting fire with fire. Dawkins thought: If Christian apologists are going to engage in pseudoscience, I will too.
Discovery of "Entropy and evolution" published by the American Journal of Physics
On January 19, 2012, I posted my criticism of Dawkins on Skeptic: Examining Extraordinary Claims & Promoting Science on the Skeptics Society Forum. I advised Glenn Branch, who is the Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education, of this discussion. Mr. Branch squelched me by citing an article published in the American Journal of Physics that Dawkins presumably based his criticism of creationists on.
What determines a system’s temperature (T) is the average kinetic energy (KE) of the molecules in the system. A linear equation connects macrophysics (T) with microphysics (KE) and uses the Boltzmann constant (1.38 × 10−23 joules/K).
The concept of entropy in macrophysics is not easy to understand because it is an integral equation in calculus. In microphysics, however, entropy is related to probabilities and knowledge about the location and speed of molecules. A gas fills up the entire container it is in because that is the most probable distribution of molecules. It is also the distribution that provides the least amount of knowledge about the location of the molecules in three-dimensional space. There is an equation for entropy (S) connecting it with probability (W) that is analogous to the equation for temperature. The AJP paper reports a calculation using this equation to prove evolution does not violate the second law.
The calculation makes no sense because the author assumes a certain probability for evolution without relating it to any real probability. The number of ways of arranging a deck of playing cards is the factorial of 52 ( 52!). You can’t use this number to calculate the entropy of a deck of playing cards.
An example of a probability calculation performed by biologists is the probability of getting a protein from the random selection of amino acids. Biologists are not concerned with the x,y,z location of amino acids. They are concerned with which amino acid is next to which.
On February 1, 2012, I sent an email to David Jackson, the editor of the AJP, asking him to take corrective action about the article (Am. J. Phys., Vol. 76, No. 11, November 2008). He replied that he did not understand my criticism of the article, but I was welcome to submit a paper explaining why the AJP is spreading misinformation about evolution and thermodynamics.
I got a Ph.D. in physics from New York University in 1971 and played squash there with a physics professor. I asked for his help in writing the article, and he suggested that I contact Professor Robert Richardson. I sent Dr. Richardson an email about my invitation to write an article and stated:
They use the equation S=klogW, but there is no justification for the use of Boltzmann’s constant for biological systems. Am I right?
The k in S=klogW is just a question of units and has no physical significance. logW is dimensionless and S has the dimensions of energy divided by temperature. k makes them match. In the ‘right’ set of units k=1. Please send me your work as I am always interested.
I sent him a copy of the AJP article and my analysis. He responded:
Prof. Richardson’s response to my question gave me the confirmation I needed, and I submitted a paper (manuscript ID no. 25055) on February 24, 2012, to the AJP. The paper was rejected by an anonymous reviewer.
I have spent some time with your work but am not able to make an informed comment. I do sometimes testify as an expert in court. But my rate is $400/hr portal to portal. I doubt that you can afford a day of my time.
I complained about the procedures followed by the American Journal of Physics in an email to the present (Beth Cunningham) and future (Gay Stewart) president of the AAPT, which publishes the AJP. I said David Jackson should have sent my manuscript to the author of the article because I was reporting an error in the calculation. By giving it to an anonymous reviewer, the author and the editor avoided taking responsibility for the article. I sent emails to the entire board of the AAPT. On December 17, 2012, I received an email from Beth Cunningham refusing my request for an appointment to discuss the matter in person.
On May 4, 2012, I sent emails to the AIP which has governance authority over the editorial policies of the American Journal of Physics. H. Frederick Dylla and Louis J. Lanzerotti answered my emails, but took no action.
On one of the forums of the ASA, I started a topic about the AJP article on January 24, 2012, and had numerous exchanges with Randy Isaac, who is the Executive Director of the ASA and a physicist who writes about evolution. The thrust of his comments and responses is that there is nothing wrong with the AJP article and that I don’t understand thermodynamics. I found his comments unresponsive. For example, I would say, "A Boeing 747 does not have a temperature." Isaac would reply, "Yes, it does." I asked Robert Kaita, the President of the ASA, to assign a moderator to our exchanges, but this request was ignored. I also tried to get support from the members of the ASA by contacting them directly. Only two of the hundreds of members I contacted supported my campaign to get the AJP to retract the "Entropy and evolution". One wrote:
On July 19, 2012, Robert Kaita told me I was misusing the membership contact information. I continued to contact my fellow members, and my membership privileges were revoked.
You are absolutely right, using the particular numerical value of k_B in Eq. 3 and 4 is ludicrous. More than ludicrous, it is dangerous and damaging to students who are subjected to learning physics from teachers who try using numerology in defense of an agenda. This particular value of k_B is for ideal gas in SI units. It is so elemental, I am embarrassed to point it out. Even the name says it, this particular k_B value multiplied by Avogadro’s number is the ubiquitous gas constant ‘R’ that appears in every single page of every single introductory text to thermodynamics. The author of this paper, therefore, implicitly proclaims that evolution can be quantified/modeled as ideal gas. Now, show me another journal in the scientific world that would allow a paper to be published on modeling evolution as ideal gas. Even if one could make an intelligible statement about evolution in the ideal gas context, WHERE IS THE ARGUMENT? In this paper, the author does not bother giving any argument, but willingly or unwillingly feeds numerology to science students. This is clearly wrong.
Dear Dr. Tyson,
The article I’v enclosed (“Entropy and evolution”, Am. J. Phys., Vol. 76, No. 11, November 2008) is so absurd that it disgraces all physicists in the United States. I am writing to request an interview so I can explain why the article should be retracted.
This is a matter of national concern because it undermines the integrity of science. I’v brought the matter to the attention of the staff of Yvette Clarke (NY-D, 9th district), and was told the matter is being investigated. My correspondence with Clarke is at
I’v made a similar request to Leon Wieseltier of the New Republic magazine because he has written against scientism, and Marietta DeChristina because she is the editor of Scientific American and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Very truly yours, David Roemer
Mailed with a certificate of mailing and faxed to (212) 769-5007
The MIT Technology Review published online an article titled, “Moore’s Law and the Origen of Life.” Prof. Georgi Gladyshev, who wrote an article titled, “Natural Selection and the Thermodynamics of Biological Evolution,” posted a comment about the article. I criticized this comment, but it was not posted.
The “1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure” of the AAUP refers to the “common good” and the “advancement of truth.” The publication of an absurd anti-religion article in peer-reviewed science journal has an impact on academic freedom in the United States.
A member of the ASA suggested that I contact Stephen Barr, a Christian with a Ph.D. in physics. Dr. Barr writes about evolution on the pages of First Things, a Catholic magazine. I sent Dr. Barr an email on June 4, 2012, including a link to the Catholic Truth of Scotland article. Dr. Barr said in an email that he read the article and then proceeded to explain why I was wrong about thermodynamics and evolution. He also said that I was harming the Catholic Church. I responded to this by accusing him of not reading the article and demanded an apology.
I then submitted a version of the Catholic Truth article to First Things, with the warning that they not consult with Dr. Barr about the matter. My submission was rejected, as was a submission to a journal published by the American Scientific Affiliation. I sent emails to members of the Institute Board and Advisory Council of First Things complaining about the rejection. I explained that my article was already published and my goal was to put pressure on the American Journal of Physics to retract the article. First Things should have confronted the AJP with my accusations.
Stephen Barr is a member of the Academy of Catholic Theology, and I asked the organization to expel Dr. Barr for helping to promulgate atheistic misinformation about evolution and thermodynamics. This led to a number of exchanges with Catholic priests. Fr. Nicano Austriaco, for example, is a member of the Academy of Catholic Theology and a biology teacher at Providence College. He told me that he did not have the time to investigate my allegations against Dr. Barr. The chairman of the physics department at Providence College said I was wrong.
On July 13 and September 26, 2013, I sent letters to the Father General of the Jesuits and the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Apostolic Life, respectively, complaining about the character of Jesuits and Dominicans who were helping the American Journal of Physics disseminate misinformation about evolutionary biology.
On September 9, 2013, I met Brian Mulcahy, O.P., when he was the Prior Provincial of the of the Province of St. Joseph in New York and the Chair of the College Corporation, which is the highest governing body of Providence College. I explained to him why "Entropy and evolution" was absurd, and why Fr. Austriaco was being disingenuous. Fr. Mulcahy said he would ask Fr. Austriaco about my accusations. I never heard back from Fr. Mulcahy. I had exchanges with Jesuits about this matter, but the Jesuits refused my request for an appointment.
I once filed a lawsuit in a United States district court. It was dismissed, but I appealed and explained in person to a panel of federal judges why the decision was wrong. I lost, but my point is that justice was not served until the oral arguments were heard. Before the oral arguments, the decision to dismiss relied on the reading and writing skills of all concerned. When you ask someone in authority for an appointment to explain why they are doing something wrong, they should see you.
Another example of pseudoscience is the theory that the Shroud of Turin is authentic. Cardinal Dolan of New York suppressed my slideshow/lecture about the Shroud of Turin because it does not promote this nonsense. On October 1, 2014, I filed a canonical complaint against Cardinal Dolan. In the cover letter to Pope Francis, I mention this example of pseudoscience. I have a website that keeps track of my correspondence with the Holy Father and the Roman Rota.
I sent letters, faxes, and emails to Alan Goldman, William Press, Michael Nelson, Gilbert Chin, Philip Sharp, May Berenbaum, Bonnie Bassler, and Alan Leshner about the AJP article. On April 24, 2015, I asked Rush Holt, CEO of the AAAS, for an appointment.
Exactly one year earlier, I buttonholed Mr. Holt when he gave a lecture at New York University while he was still a congressman from New Jersey. I explained to him why the American Journal of Physics article was absurd. I later wrote a 1600 word letter about this to him and faxed it to 170 physics departments in the United States.
After telling the American Association for the Advancement of Science about the scandal, I sent a letter with a certificate of mailing to the Director of the National Science Foundation (Cora Marrett) asking for an appointment to explain why the AJP should retract "Entropy and evolution." I mentioned that I sent similar letters to nine presidents of universities in New York criticizing their chairs of physics for not supporting my campaign. The letter was ignored, so I asked Yvette Clarke (D-NY, 9th district) for an appointment. Her communications director initially refused to set up an appointment. However, after I sent him a letter with nine exhibits he told me my allegations against the American Journal of Physics, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the American Institute of Physics were being investigated.
One exhibit was a link to Pseudoscience in the American Journal of Physics, an article written by me, published by Creationwiki.org, and accessed about 2,400 times from January 2013 to January 2015.
Another exhibit was a link to an article published in Evolution News and View written by a professor of mathematics (Granville Sewell)("More Philosophical Than Scientific: Parsing a Rationalization") about the AJP article.
I might also have included this reference: McIntosh, A. C., "Information and Entropy—top-down and bottom-up development in living systems?", Int. J. of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics. Vol. 4, No. 4 (2009), pp. 351 to 385.
On January 5, 2014, I sent a letter with a certificate of mailing to Clarke asking about the promised investigation.
On March 1, 2015, Ezinearticles.com published my article "Atheistic Pseudoscience." This is a review of book about the history of science and relates the pseudoscience about evolution with the origin of the universe.
On March 20, 2015, I mailed a letter to the Sergeant of Arms of the House of Representatives (Paul Irving) accusing Clarke and Ami Bera (D-CA, 7th district) of misconduct. On April 22, 2015, I faxed a letter to Michael McCaul (R-TX, 10th district) that included the letter I sent to Hon. Paul Irving. I faxed and emailed my request to see the CEO of the AAAS to all of the members of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. I used faxes and social media to send an open letter to practically all members of the House of Representatives saying, "If the article is retracted, it will be a news item and embarrassing to the scientific establishment in the Unites States. I believe the public has a right to know how irrational scientists can be about biological evolution."
BIO-Complexity, a peer-reviewed journal, published Graville Sewell’s article titled "Entropy and evolution." This article refutes the AJP article, but I don’t fully agree with it. I submitted my own article with the same title to BIO-Complexity. It was rejected.
On January 25, 2015, a member of the editorial board of BIO-Complexity sent me an email saying of the American Journal of Physics article that it was "complete nonsenses."
On March 11, 2014, I sent a LinkedIn message to Robert Nelson, who is a science advisor to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security for the U. S. Department of State, Rose Gottemoeller. I told Dr. Nelson that Al Jeezra may know about the AJP article because I contacted one of its writers about the scandal. I followed up with letters to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Sergeant of Arms of the U.S. House of Representatives.
On May 14, 2013, Willem Drees, the editor, rejected a manuscript I submitted titled "Exploring the Conflict Between Science and Religion." The article explains why the AJP article should be retracted. I responded to this by sending an open letter to all of the advisors to Zygon saying they were helping the American Journal of Physics engage in pseudoscience.
On March 20 and April 7, I contacted my senators (Charles Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand) asking for appointments so I could explain why the AJP article undermines our national security and the integrity of science. I was ignored and filed an ethics complaint against Senator Schumer with the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Ethics on June 8, 2014.
On February 7, 2015, I started a topic titled "Biological Evolution and the Second law of Thermodynamics" on the Skeptics Society Forum. The intellectual level of the exchanges soon deteriorated. I suggested that a moderator with a Ph.D. in physics be assigned, but this was ignored. I faxed a letter of complaint to the Board of Directors of this group. In my letter to Michael Schermer, I suggested that this scandal sheds light on the Holocaust. In Nazi Germany, nobody was ever forced to kill anyone. But there were severe penalties for telling about the killings. I also compared the behavior of the Skeptics Forum with the behavior of Congressman Yvette Clarke.
On May 26, 2015, I faxed Robert Spitzer, S.J., the open letter I sent to the CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. I then discovered that this organization is promoting the argument for God's existence based on the Big Bang and the fine-tuning of physical constants. I began a website titled "Rational Arguments for God's Existence: Evangelizing is Good and Proselytizing is Bad."
In September 2015, I submitted an article titled, "Thermodynamics, Evolution, and Good and Evil," to these journals:
Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science (Willem B. Drees)
Journal of the American Academy of Religion (Amir Hussain)
Journal of the American Academy of Religion Media Review (John Lyden)
European Society for the Study of Science and Theology (Knut-Willy Sæther)
Science Advances (Marcia McNutt)
Theology and Science (Robert John Russell)
Institute for the Bio-Cultural Study of Religion Research Review (Wesley J. Wildman)
In the cover letter to one of them, I wrote
If the American Journal of Physics retracts the absurd article about evolution and thermodynamics, I can't see why Science Advances would want to publish my article. If the American Journal of Physics does not retract the article and my article is not published by Science Advances, it will reflect poorly on the character of the editors of Science Advances.
I emailed a letter to COPE complaining about the American Institute of Physics, Science Advances, Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, and Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
On September 17, 2015, I renamed the article, "Thermodynamics, Evolution, and Good and Evil" to "Analogy between Nazi Germany and the United States," and submitted it to Perspectives on History, a publication of the American Historical Association. On November 16, I inquired about my submission, and the editor, Allison Miller, said, "From what I can tell, the editorial board thought that articles about articles that appeared in other journals were not appropriate for our magazine." James Grossman, the Executive Director of the AHA, refused my request for a personal appointment in an email on November 23, 2015. I faxed and emailed the article and my email correspondence about it to 18 members of the Counsel of the AHA.
The CTNS publishes Theology and Science, which rejected "Thermodynamics, Evolution, Good and Evil" on December 1, 2015, in an email. The email included the referee's comments.
The ESSSAT rejected my offer to present "Thermodynamics, Evolution, Good an Evil" at their conference on April 26 to May 1 in 2016.
This organization publishes The Historian. On January 22, 2016, the editor, Dr. Kees Boterbloem, sent me an email refusing to publish the article which is now at Academia.edu:
Analogy Between Nazi Germany and the United States
Acioli, Paulo—Northeastern Illinois University, Physics
Albert, Javier Leach— European Society for the Study of Science and Theology
Albrecht, Andreas—University of California Davis, Physics
Alford, Mark—Washington University in St. Louis, Physics
Almutawa, Shatha—George Washington University
Andrew, Keith—Western Kentucky University, Physics
Ayala, Francisco—University of California Irving, Biology
Baden, Andrew—University of Maryland, Physics
Baldisseri, Lorenzo—Synod of Bishops, Secretary General
Barr, Stephen—University of Delaware, Physics
Barrow, John—University of Cambridge, Physics
Barufaldi, James—University of Texas Austin, Curriculum and Instruction
Bassler, Bonnie—Princeton University, Molecular Biology,
Batuski, David—University of Maine, Physics
Bauer, Wolfgang—Michigan State University, Physics
Beale, Paul—University of Colorado Boulder, Physics
Beall, Cynthia—Case Western Reserve University, Anthropology
Beatty, James—Ohio State University, Physics
Beatty, John—The University of British Columbia
Bebej, Ryan—Calvin College, Biology
Bell, David—Princeton University, History
Benesh, Gregory—Baylor University, Physics
Benz, Edward—Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Berenbaum, May—University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Entomology
Berger, David—Yeshiva University, Jewish History
Berney, Rex—University of Dayton, Physics
Bertschinger, Edward—Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Physics
Beveridge, Albert—American Historical Association, Counsel
Beverly, Nancy—Mercy College, Physics
Blair, Leonard—Bishop of Hartford, Connecticut
Blanchard, Gerard—Southeastern Louisiana University, Physics
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Blondin, John—North Carolina State University, Physics
Boley, Mark—Western Illinois University, Physics
Bollen, Kenneth—University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Psychology
Bollinger, Lee—Columbia University, President
Bonn, Doug—University of British Columbia, Physics
Boterbloem, Kees—University of South Florida
Bradley, Asa—Spokane Falls Community College, Physics
Bradley, James—Calvin College, Mathematics
Bråkenhielm, Lotta—Uppsala University
Branch, Glenn—National Center for Science Education, Deputy Director
Brennum, David—University of Nevada, Physics
Brodie, Edmund—University of Virginia, Biology
Brown, Ben—Marquette University, Physics
Brown, Robert—CEO of American Institute of Physics
Bugajak, Grzegorz—Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University
Bulcher, Edward—University of Chicago, Physics
Burcham, David—Loyola Marymount University, President
Burrows, Cynthia—University of Utah, Chemistry
Busch, Jennifer—Wheaton College, Biology
Byer, Robert—Stanford University, Applied Physics
Cacioppo, John—University of Chicago, Psychology
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Caggiano, Frank—Catholic Diocese of Bridgeport, Connecticut
Cannon, Mark—Brigham Young University-Hawaii, Physics
Carey, Elaine—St. John’s University, History
Cicero, John—USA Northeast Province of the Society of Jesus
Cecire, Kenneth—University of Notre Dame, Physics
Chagnon, Napoleon—University of Missouri, Anthropology
Chakrabarti, Amit—Kansas State University, Physics
Champion, Paul—Northeastern University, Physics
Chaput, Charles— Catholic Archbishop of Philadelphia
Clegg, Jim—University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory
Clemens, Chris—University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Coico, Lisa—City College of New York, President
Cooper, Stuart—Ohio State University, Chemical and Biological Engineering
Córdova, France—National Science Foundation, Executive Director
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Craig, David—Le Moyne College, Physics
Craig, Matt—Minnesota State University Moorhead, Physics
Cunningham, Beth—American Association of Physics Teachers
Curran, Thomas—Rockhurst University, President
Das, Biman—State University of New York Potsdam, Physics
Davis, Edward—Messiah College, History of Science
de Aviz, João Bráz—Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Apostolic Life, Prefect
DeGioia, John—Georgetown University, President
DeMarco, Michael—Buffalo State University, Physics
Dennis, William—University of Georgia, Physics
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DiChristina, Marietta—Scientific American
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Dirks, Nicholas—University of California Berkeley, President
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Epstein, Catherine—Amherst College
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Page, Lyman—Princeton University, Physics
Paley, Valerie—New York Historical Society
Pantaleone, James—University of Alaska Anchorage, Physics
Parker, Gregory—University of Oklahoma, Physics
Parks, Beth—Colgate University, Physics
Parpia, Jeevak—Cornell University, Physics
Peters, Ted—Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary, Systematic Theology
Phillips, William—University of Maryland, Physics
Poisson, Eric—University of Guelph, Physics
Poling, Ronald—University of Minnesota, Physics
Poon, Joseph—University of Virginia, Physics
Potterveld, Reiss—Graduate Theological Union, President
Powell, Bobby—University of West Georgia, Physics
Powers, William—University of Texas Austin, President
Press, William—University of Texas Austin
Pyper, Brian—Brigham Young University-Idaho, Physics
Rafael, L.—Massachusetts Institute of Technology, President
Ransome, Ronald—Rutger University, Physics
Ravindran, N.—New Jersey Institute of Technology, Physics
Redner, Sidney—Boston University, Physics
Reich, Daniel—Johns Hopkins University, Physics
Reid, Joshua—University of Washington, American Indian Studies
Reno, Mary—University of Iowa, Physics
Revol, Fabien— Catholic University of Lyon
Richards-Kortum, Rebecca—Rice University, Physics
Richardson, Robert—New York University, Physics
Richardson, W. Mark—Church Divinity School of the Pacific
Ricken, David—Bishop of Greenbay, Wisconsin
Riley, Mark—Florida State University, Physics
Roach, Timothy—College of the Holy Cross, Physics
Roberts, Mary Louise—University of Wisconsin Madison, History
Robertson, Thomas—Ball State University, Physics
Rogan, Elizabeth—CEO of Optical Society of America
Roseman, Nancy—Dickinson College, President
Roy, Dipankar—Clarkson University, Physics
Ruddle, Nancy—Yale School of Medicine
Ruiz, Vicki—University of California Irvine, History
Russell, Edmund—University of Kansas, History
Russell, Robert—Graduate Theological Union
Sabella, Mel—Chicago State University, Physics
Sæther, Knut-Willy—Volda University College and NLA University College
Salley-Guydon, Judith—South Carolina State University, Physics
Samarth, Nitin—Pennsylvania State University, Physics
Sassaman, John—Senate Ethics Committee, Special Counsel
Saulson, Peter—Syracuse University, Physics
Scherrer, Robert—Vanderbilt University, Physics
Schmidt, Julie—American Association of University Professors
Schonbörn, Christoph—Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna
Schwarz, Cindy—Vassar College, Physics
Scime, Earl—Marist College, Physics
Scott, Eugenie—National Center for Science Education
Segal, Nancy—California State University Fullerton, Psychology
Seger, Janet—Creighton University, Physics
Serratelli, Arthur—Catholic Diocese of Paterson, New Jersey, Bishop
Sharp, Phillip—Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Physics
Sheeran, Michael—Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, President
Shermer, Michael—Skeptics Magazine, Editor
Shropshire, Steven—Idaho State University, Physics
Sikkema, Arnold—Trinity Western University, Physics
Smith, Richard—Montana State University, Physics
Smolich, Thomas—Jesuit Conference, President
Sobolewski, Stanley—Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Physics
Sokoloff, David—University of Oregon, Physics
Spencer, Ross—Brigham Young University, Physics
Spitzer, Robert—President of Magis Center
Stanley, Samuel—Stony Brook University, President
Stenger, Harvey—Binghamton University, President
Stewart, Brian—Wesleyan University, Physics
Stewart, Gay—West Virginia University, Physics
Sudhakaran, Gubbi—University of Wisconsin La Crosse, Physics
Sullivan, Teresa, University of Virginia, President
Sullivan, Timothy—Kenyon College, Physics
Sulloway, Frank—University of California Berkeley, Psychology
Sundaram, Bala—University of Massachusetts, Physics
Supplee, James—Drew University, Physics
Szczepaniak, Adam—Indiana University Bloomington, Physics
Taborek, Peter—University of California, Irving
Tao, Rongjia—Temple University, Physics
Tavris, Carol—Social Psychology Network
Towell, Rusty—Abilene Christian University, Physics
Tsui, Amy—Johns Hopkins University, Sociology
Turnshek, David—University of Pittsburgh, Physics
Tyson, Neil DeGrasse—American Museum of Natural History
Urry, C.—Yale University, Physics
Uytterhoeven, Tom— Catholic University of Leuven
Valles, James—Brown University, Physics
Van Keuren, Edward—Georgetown University, Physics
Vann, Kevin—Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange
Varghese, S.—University of South Alabama, Physics
Varsha, Kulharni—University of South Carolina, Physics
Verma, Inder—Salk Institute
Vyse, Stuart—Connecticut College, Psychology
Wahl, Horst—Florida State University, Physics
Walhout, Matthew—Calvin College, Physics
Wayne, Mitchell—University of Notre Dame, Physics
Weinstein, Bernard—University at Buffalo SUNY, Physics
Weiss, Alex—University of Texas Arlington, Physics
Wessler, Susan—University of California Riverside, Genetics
Wheater, John—University of Oxford, Physics
White, Christopher—Illinois Institute of Technology, Physics
White, Raymond—University of Alabama, Physics
Wieseltier, Leon—New Republic, Editor
Wilkins, Robert Louis—University of Virginia, History of Christianity
Woodruff-Pak, Diana—Temple University, Psychology
Wuerl, Donald—Archbishop of Washington D.C.
Wyard, Adrian—Counterbalance Foundation
Zajc, William—Columbia University, Physics
Zitzewitz, Paul—University of Michigan, Physics
Zollman, Dean— Kansas State University, Physics
Zollner, Stefan—New Mexico State University, Physics